Alumni Dissertations

 

Alumni Dissertations

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  • Cyber-surveillance: A Case Study in Policy & Development

    Author:
    Richard Kim
    Year of Dissertation:
    2010
    Program:
    Criminal Justice
    Advisor:
    F Benton
    Abstract:

    The dissertation examines the historical developement of surveillance, electronic surveillance, and cyber-surveillance from the Colonial times to the present. It presents the surveillance laws, technologies, policies as a balance between national security and privacy. To examine more recent developments, the dissertation includes case-studies of three cyber-surveillance tools: Carnivore, Magic Lantern, annd NARUS; describing the operational functions, logistic search functions, minimizaation capacities of these tools. The closing chapters assess the dynamic balance between the achievement of national security and public order and the need to preserve rights and the expectatation of privacy.

  • Evaluation of the Effects of Shift work Assignment: A Survey of Motivation in Police Officers

    Author:
    Rainer Kroll
    Year of Dissertation:
    2010
    Program:
    Criminal Justice
    Advisor:
    Maria Haberfeld
    Abstract:

    The detrimental health effects of a varied shift schedule on personnel were researched extensively. In fact, the culmination of this work was substantive policy changes, especially within the law enforcement field. While these policy changes were sound in principal, the implementation of invariable shift assignments to meet organizational requirements and the subsequent impact on personnel was documented less frequently. There was little research on employee motivation as a consequence of shift assignments. Partly a consequence of the implementation of organizational mandates with little regard for employee welfare, it was this employee/organization nexus that was inherently important to personal and organizational success. This relationship between employee motivation and shift assignments needed to be researched, and was the focus of this proposal. A Motivation Index, comprised of the various survey questions grouped together according to a specific factor, was created to allow analysis of specific effects of shift assignments on the employee's motivation. These factors were based on external-personal and internal-institutional variables. The analysis began with descriptive statistics of the data--mean, median, mode, range, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, bar chart, histogram, and significant correlations were presented. Additional analysis was conducted using principal components analysis, used to help reduce the data to outline patterns of relationships between the survey questions. These results were used to identify which clusters of variables shared variance and were considered most important to the survey respondent. The purpose of the analysis was twofold--to identify which factors were most meaningful to the survey respondent, and to incorporate these results into policy development in organizational behavior, specifically within the law enforcement community.

  • Offending in Karachi's neighborhoods: An empirical test of the systemic model of social disorganization

    Author:
    Zainab Latif
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    Criminal Justice
    Advisor:
    Amy Adamczyk
    Abstract:

    The systemic model of social disorganization posits that structural challenges impede the development of neighborhood networks responsible for informal social control, and thereby increase residents' involvement in crime. However recent studies suggest that in severely disadvantaged and isolated communities, even well-functioning networks may be unable to prevent offending, as a result of cultural and political economy factors such as legal cynicism and the legitimization of violence. This research examines the utility of the ecological framework in Karachi, and assesses the impact of key social disorganization indicators - ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility and concentrated poverty - on offending. It also examines the extent to which these impacts are mediated by variation in state legitimacy across Karachi's neighborhoods. The project draws on three sources of secondary data: census of Pakistan, election data, and jail admission records. The sample consists of 453 of Karachi's census tracts. Analyses include descriptive techniques to assess the utility of the ecological framework, multivariate regressions to examine direct and mediation effects, and structural equation models to test the significance of the entire complex models. Results display considerable variation across neighborhoods in offending, voting behavior and other sociological indicators. Two social disorganization factors - concentrated disadvantage and ethnic heterogeneity - as well as legitimacy, are each seen to have significant, positive, direct effects on total offending, violent offending and robbery. Results further suggest that concentrated disadvantage and mobility contribute to voting behaviors. These results have important implications for the application of ecological theories in general, and social disorganization in particular, in Karachi. The study also points to the importance of macro-social indicators such as voting behavior in explaining offending. Finally, results speak to the need for careful selection of multivariate regression models and the benefits of supplementing these techniques with SEM. However, it is suggested that further investigation into the nature of the micro-social processes underlying social disorganization, and a more rigorous understanding of the determinants of voting behavior and its ability to adequately represent attitudes toward state legitimacy will allow for more accurate application of these findings to the systemic model.

  • Counterfeiting: A Challenge to Forensic Science, the Criminal Justice System, and Its Impact on Pharmaceutical Innovation

    Author:
    Pauline Leary
    Year of Dissertation:
    2014
    Program:
    Criminal Justice
    Advisor:
    John Reffner, Ph.D.
    Abstract:

    Counterfeit drugs threaten public health and present unique and complex challenges to the criminal justice system and the field of forensic science. Theft of intellectual property in the pharmaceutical industry has caused sickness and death, and it is necessary that the perpetrators of these crimes are brought to justice. In some cases, threats to health and safety are short term; in others they are long term. This research describes these threats in detail. The problem is complex, and there are many important factors that need to be considered to successfully address the problem. Public-health challenges, drug-development challenges, legal challenges, issues of public policy, and financial considerations are all important aspects of the problem that need to be understood. This research describes these details so that appropriate solutions can be proposed. The field of forensic science struggles to establish analytical methods to identity composition and establish provenance of counterfeit goods. No method has been shown to be universally applied to achieve this goal. The use of field-portable instruments to detect and identify counterfeits in the field is important emerging technology. These instruments must work quickly and accurately. This research defines the challenges faced by the field of forensic science and proposes methods that may be used to address these challenges. This will enable forensic scientists to provide support to law enforcement and other members of the criminal justice and legal systems to successfully investigate and adjudicate these crimes.

  • Memorial Laws: Social and Media Construction of Personalized Legislation, 1994 -2005

    Author:
    Faith Leibman
    Year of Dissertation:
    2009
    Program:
    Criminal Justice
    Advisor:
    Warren Benton
    Abstract:

    The purpose of the present study is to conduct an in-depth qualitative evaluation of the sociological traits of victims and the crime variables that appeared to be associated in some manner with the adoption of Memorial Laws in various states. The present study represents a first attempt to investigate Memorial Laws as a phenomenon.The study presents several important factors that it hypothesizes to be related to Memorial Law passage. These factors include socio-cultural conditions (e.g., fear of crime, publicity about victims and attention given by the media to victim attributes) and political activities (e.g., the dominant political ideology statewide, the political culture of a state), among others. The data used in this study consists of all Memorial laws enacted in state legislatures between 1994 and 2005. By examining a number of social, demographic, and political factors associated with Memorial Law enactment, this study seeks to increase our understanding of Memorial Laws.

  • Snitch or Good Samaritan: An Analysis of the Factors Influencing An Individual's Willingness to Share Information with Security Services

    Author:
    Lauren Leighton
    Year of Dissertation:
    2013
    Program:
    Criminal Justice
    Advisor:
    Maria (Maki) Haberfeld
    Abstract:

    As the ten year anniversary of the September 11th terrorist attacks has now passed, it is evident that terrorism is still a legitimate threat and preeminent topic in popular discourse. The significance of the attacks has, in the years since, continued to shape and dictate the security portfolios of federal law enforcement agencies and intelligence services in the Western world. Traditionally, literature on terrorism has focused on the extremist act itself, the perpetrator(s), and to a lesser extent the victims. However, there is a lack of research looking at the role of the community in counterterrorism efforts. In order for security services to effectively combat terrorist activity occurring domestically, within Canada and the United States, procuring actionable intelligence is imperative. One of the best sources of actionable intelligence, pertaining to terrorist activity, is the community. Existing literature suggests that individuals are willing to contact the authorities with information pertaining to traditional criminal activity. An individual's likelihood of contacting the police and providing them with information has been found to be influenced by specific factors such as; race, age, and gender etc. However, in the post 9/11 world there is very little research on the likelihood of an individual reporting terrorist activity to the authorities. The aim of this exploratory study is to gain a better understanding of the factors (demographic, social network and/or community) that associate with an individual's willingness to contact the authorities (law enforcement, intelligence agencies) and share information with them pertaining to perceived or actual terrorist activity. Through an original survey comprised of hypothetical vignettes, depicting a variety of terrorist activity, insight will be garnered on the reporting tendencies of regular citizens when faced with extremist activity.

  • Community Policing & Counter Terrorism: Community Policing Philosophy as a Tool for Local LAw Enforcement to Counter Terrorist Activities

    Author:
    Charles Lieberman
    Year of Dissertation:
    2009
    Program:
    Criminal Justice
    Advisor:
    Maria Haberfeld
    Abstract:

    The phenomenon of terrorism has become an issue of great concern to society and the response of governments has varied throughout the world. For the purpose of this study, an act of terrorism will be operationalized as the use of force by non-state actors against a civilian population in an attempt to coerce a target audience to implement a political, economic, religious or ideological change. The United States (US) government has utilized a number of federal organizations, such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Central Intelligence Agency, to investigate and prevent acts of terrorism both domestically and internationally. Although many local law enforcement agencies have received increased funding to address the phenomenon of terrorism, there has been limited research conducted to ascertain the changes implemented and the effectiveness of new programs and training. The state of preparedness of local law enforcement agencies in their proactive efforts to counter terrorism is shrouded in the dark. There has been practically no research in the area of mobilization of local communities in intelligence gathering and other proactive tools to counter terrorist activities. The local law enforcement response to the phenomenon of terrorism remains unknown for an overwhelming majority of departments in the US. The goal of this research study is to assess the feasibility of implementation of some of the most basic tenets of the community oriented policing philosophy in mobilization of the communities by local law enforcement agencies in their effort to become proactive in the fight against local and global terrorist threat. Through utilization of a number of focus groups in the Northeast region of the US the researcher measures and assesses the attitudes and perspectives of both law enforcement and non-law enforcement towards the possibility of engagement of community members in a proactive effort to counter terrorism on a local level. The focus on the local level is supported in part by recent academic studies that have found, in the case of actors involved with the commission of terrorist attacks in the US, the existence of spatial relationships among residence of actor, preparatory activities, and target selection. The research found support for community policing in proactive counter-terrorism.

  • The Application of Dispersion Staining and Infrared Microspectroscopy to Analyze Physical Evidence in Developing Countries

    Author:
    Thiti Mahacharoen
    Year of Dissertation:
    2014
    Program:
    Criminal Justice
    Advisor:
    John Reffner
    Abstract:

    In developing countries like Thailand and in remote forensic laboratories around the world, scientific investigations of crimes are limited by the shortage of trained personnel and financial resources. The premise of this research is that polarized light microscope and dispersion staining methods will be developed which allow investigators with limited training to analyze physical evidence at a minimal cost. This research identifies specific liquids for the analysis of trace evidence using the dispersion staining technique. The development of dispersion staining technique and identification of specific liquid will extend the application of forensic science to remote laboratories and in the field to improve criminal investigations and justice. The methods developed in this research are fast, inexpensive and require minimum training; meeting the needs of developing countries and laboratories in the remote area. Dispersion staining is a non-destructive microscopical method that creates a uniquely colored image of a transparent sample when it is mounted in a specific liquid. This color is produced by differences between the refraction of light by the sample and surrounding liquid. The scientific principles of these techniques are well-established, but when applied to forensic science, they advance the capacity of developing countries to achieve high standards of evidentiary proof at lower cost. The collection of evidence, documentation of a crime scene and scientific examination of physical evidence are foundations of criminal investigation which both strengthen the prosecution and prevent wrongful convictions. This technique can be used to detect, compare and identify very small particles. In this study, three classes of trace evidence were selected to demonstrate the practicality and advantages of this technique. The three classes are fibers, controlled drugs and soil minerals. Samples of each evidence class were analyzed in two steps: first, the Becke line method was used to observe and record the relative refractive index between a sample and mounting liquid, the second step was to put each sample in a specific refractive index liquid to generate distinct colors of the sample. The dispersion staining technique can differentiate and identify an unknown sample by the color produced in a liquid of a specific refractive index value. To validate the composition of exemplar evidence material, FTIR microprobe analysis was used. The rapid and reliable results of this method will aid criminal investigation in a remote area, improve law enforcement and reduce demands on central laboratory facilities.

  • The Relationship Between Possessing Child Pornography And Child Molestation

    Author:
    Jennifer McCarthy
    Year of Dissertation:
    2010
    Program:
    Criminal Justice
    Advisor:
    Karen Terry
    Abstract:

    Based on integrated theories of sex offending, non-contact (n=176) and contact (n=71) adult male child pornography offenders were compared on dispositional and transitory dispositional variables. Contact child pornography offenders were successfully discriminated from their non-contact counterparts based on their deviant sexual interests, criminal history, inability to self-regulate sexually, substance abuse history, online seduction of minors and networking with others who had similar deviant sexual interests. For contact child pornography offenders, four factors were found to be predictive of child sex abuse - criminal history, marital status, involvement in indiscriminate sexual behavior, and the online seduction of minors. Additionally, from a situational perspective, the offense process of contact child pornography offenders was found to be similar to that of child molesters.

  • The Chemical Analysis of Modern Tattoo Inks

    Author:
    Michelle Miranda
    Year of Dissertation:
    2012
    Program:
    Criminal Justice
    Advisor:
    Thomas Kubic
    Abstract:

    The application of vibrational spectroscopic methods to the analysis of modern organic pigments found in tattoo inks is explored in this project. In the field of forensic science, the recognition and identification of both inorganic and organic pigments in human tissue can aid in the identification of charred, decomposed, mummified or otherwise unidentifiable remains in criminal investigations and mass disasters (natural, accidental and as a result of terrorism). In the field of art conservation and cultural heritage, the characterization and archiving of organic pigments in traditional tattoo inks can aid in future anthropological and archaeological studies of human culture and history. The criminal justice field has long studied the culture and impact of tattooing, especially in criminal behavior and incarcerated individuals. A more detailed knowledge of the composition of tattoo inks can assist in understanding criminal behavior and cultural practices of individuals in prison settings and among social groups. Furthermore, by detailing the visual, microscopic and spectroscopic analysis of tattoo inks along with describing the theories of vibrational spectroscopy and color chemistry, a thorough analytical method can be developed and validated to conform to current forensic laboratory accreditation standards and the satisfaction of legal standards such as Frye, Daubert and the Federal Rules of Evidence. The aim of this research is to scientifically evaluate tattoo inks by documenting the physical properties of the inks both macroscopically and microscopically and by identifying the optical and chemical properties of the pigments spectroscopically. This is done in an effort to qualitatively identify tattoo inks resulting in the ability to discriminate between different colors, within similar colors and between different brands of tattoo inks. The lack of an established method of analysis of tattoo inks for identification and comparison is an additional catalyst for this research. The primary means of characterization is based upon molecular structural determination using normal micro-Raman spectroscopy. This method will be supplemented by several other methods commonly employed in forensic science and art conservation laboratories, such as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis).