The Interchange of Plain Velar and Aspirate in Kronos/Chronos: A Case for Etymological Equivalence
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Despite the current state of uncertainty regarding the etymology of Kronos, the equivalence long familiar to the ancients between Kronos and Chronos is still a moot point. Arguments denying their etymological equivalence can no longer firmly rely on linguistic arguments. It is therefore necessary to examine the validity of the time-honored interpretation of Kronos as the personification of Time. The solution to this problem is of considerable importance to Classical studies, since it will not so much as contribute to a better understanding of the myth of Kronos, as the interpretation of Kronos as Time is already familiar from ancient sources, but it will demand a rereading of Hesiod's Theogony to account for the possible relation of its myth and symbols to comparable myths and symbols of the transitioning ages of the world and consequent calendrical corrections.
Mensura Incognita: Queer Kinship, Camp Aesthetics, and Juvenal's Ninth Satire
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The dissertation addresses four problematic aspects of scholarship on Juvenal 9. The first two are matters of reception history: first, the poem has been understudied; and second, most major extant studies of the poem have been grossly or subtly homophobic. The other two problems are matters of literary criticism: Juvenal's ninth satire has traditionally been read as an attack on homosexuality, when in fact it is neither an attack, nor is it about homosexuality. The current study addresses each of these problems, reassessing the ninth satire in the context of queer theory and camp aesthetics. Chapter One traces the homophobic tendencies in the modern reception of Juvenal 9 across reception modalities including expurgation, biographical criticism, and persona theory. Chapter Two reviews relevant concepts in queer theory and the discourse of camp. Queer theory emphasizes the performative dimensions of sex, gender, and kinship. Camp is a counter-normative discourse in which incongruous situations and juxtapositions are presented in a theatrical manner for humorous effect, expressing the relationship of sex, gender, and kinship deviants to dominant discourses of normativity and embracing the stigmatized identity of the deviant, marginalized other. Chapter Three reviews the debate over Juvenal's moralism among scholars of satire beginning in the 1960s. This debate serves as an unwitting proxy for a debate about camp aesthetics by emphasizing the role of perverse wit in articulating a moral satiric vision. Chapter Four offers a close, detailed reading of Juvenal's ninth satire within the framework of queer theory and camp aesthetics laid out in previous chapters. The reading identifies instances of camp incongruity, theatricality, and humor, the embrace of stigmatized identity, and the expression of solidarity with the deviant. Particular emphases are the parody of social and cultural institutions such as marriage and patronage; literary genres such as epic, elegy, and declamation; and literary motifs such as servitium amoris, militia amoris, and exclusus amator, among others. A Conclusion recaps and extends some of the major contentions of the study and indicates directions for further research. Finally, an Appendix provides an original translation of Juvenal's ninth satire.
Plutarch's Fortune: A Close Reading
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Plutarch's Fortune has been ignored, if not dismissed, as a work of little or no importance. Certainly, there has been no in depth critical treatment of it in the current century or the twentieth century. To be sure, it seems an expression of superficial ideas. A closer reading, however, reveals a dense text which alludes or refers to numerous sources and literary genres, including philosophy, tragedy, lyric, comedy and oratory. Plutarch creates a subtle and complex fabric of association, which does not create a clear enough pattern to suggest his purpose in writing the work. Possible clues toward an understanding of such a work as this one appears to be, are provided by Leo Strauss, Eduard Zeller, William Thomas, and John Toland, authors of the twentieth, nineteenth, and eighteenth centuries, as well as Cicero, Gellius and Plutarch, in antiquity. They describe a technique used by ancient writers which presented a superficial, exoteric teaching for the casual reader, while a more sophisticated reader would discern a deeper, esoteric teaching. As Plutarch's opusculum demonstrates a number of the signs of such writing, it is possible that he has employed such a technique of obscure writing. This dissertation begins with an introductory chapter which outlines brief biographical details for Plutarch and the basic problems in studying the figure of Tyche, a description of the existing editions and previous treatments of the work, and introduces the problem of obscure writing as a possible approach to this essay of Plutarch. The complete text is presented in a commentary, which explores the references found throughout the essay and questions apparent discrepancies. The concluding chapter adds another aspect of the process of writing secretly, that of reading related works of different authors together to learn more of the underlying message. A short comparison between Plutarch and his contemporary, Favorinus, is presented. No firm conclusions have been drawn here, about the content of the inner teaching, but the project is intended as a foundation for further work.
Ktiseis/Aitia in Various Ancient Greek Prose Authors
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In this dissertation, I focus on "ktiseis," Greek prose narratives about the founding of cities and the city founders. Also, I discuss "aitia," stories about causes, origins, and originators of various cultural customs, religious practices and even verbal expressions. I conclude eventually that these narratives served a purpose in creating unity among people who shared a language and, to use broad terms for now, a culture and history, and geographical territory they claimed as their own. I typically refer to these narratives together as ktiseis/aitia, because my research into the composition technique itself of these Greek prose narratives suggests that the narratives were composed with the assistance of a familiar schema, a regularly used template, uniform in its composition, that assisted researchers who were studying texts in order to compose their own versions of narratives. With the assistance of Carol Dougherty's research, I have developed my Foundation and Etiology Narrative Schema (the Schema), the familiar template which I suggest forms the basis of ktiseis/aitia and other remembrance-based narratives. I describe the Schema thoroughly in the second chapter of this dissertation, especially as it appears in the mythographer Conon. The Schema assists in forming and cultivating relationships among peoples whose stories and histories are topics of these Greek narratives. These stories share such a familiar template that the people whose homelands and cultural identities are reflected and explained via the narratives become interconnected. This unity through mythical/historical narratives I develop throughout Chapter One. Chapter 3 explores the elements of the Schema both individually and in connection with one another. Thematic pairs and sequences of items are crucial to the efficacy of the Schema. The way in which the elements of the narrative structure combine to make meaning recalls Hayden White's discussion of literary tropes. The final chapter examines the Schema in a variety of prose authors to illuminate both its wide use and its centrality in remembrance-based narratives.
Leonidas of Tarentum: A Wandering Poet in the Tradition of Greek Literature
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This dissertation examines the poetry of Leonidas of Tarentum, a Greek epigrammatist from the first half of the third century BC. The study concentrates on the theme of wandering and his stylistic technique of to oligon, or meager, everyday subject matter, that is described in high language with elaborate diction and literary allusion, with reference to Homeric texts in particular. The project demonstrates how these themes provide coordination among his epigrams. Since his epigrams are preserved in the Greek Anthology, which is a combination of a number of anthologies from the first century BC through the sixteenth century CE, many scholars have doubted the possibility of a Leonidean, self-authored and autonomous collection. I argue that, through thematic coordination and a system of pairing, the collection proves to have once been an epigram book, comparable to the recently discovered epigram book attributed to Posidippus, also an author of the third century BC. This study reevaluates Leonidas' epigrams as part of their own autonomous collection, a collection that will be shown to have played an important role in the development of the genre of Hellenistic epigram and in the tradition of Greek literature.
Homeric Diction in Posidippus
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Abstract Homeric Diction in Posidippus By Maura Kathleen Williams Advisor: Professor Dee L. Clayman This dissertation is a study of the use of Homeric diction in the epigrams of Posidippus of Pella. I place the poetry in the context of the aesthetic and scholarly interests of Ptolemaic Alexandria and I provide a stylistic and intertextual analysis of the use of Homer in these 3rd century BCE epigrams. In the subgenres of amatory and sepulchral epigrams, the repetition of Homeric diction in combination with particular topoi and themes in the poems of Posidippus and other epigrammatists becomes a literary trope. In other cases, Posidippus incorporates more complex thematic allusion to Homer and, by doing so, displays awareness of the self-reflexive and self-annotating experience of reading poetry. The repetition of Homeric diction within sections of the Milan papyrus reinforces arguments for cohesive structure within the lithika and oionoskopika sections. What this study of Homeric diction reveals is that Posidippus' choice of topoi and themes are distinguished by the way he incorporates Homeric references and thematic allusion. Other poets share his topoi and his themes and sometimes even his Homeric diction, but these three elements rarely match the complexity in Posidippus. The combinations are what differentiate Posidippus' stylistic tendences from other Hellenistic epigrammatists.