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Governance and Comprehensive Community Initiatives: A Case Study of the PRYSE Coalition in Far Rockaway, New York, 2000-2004
Year of Dissertation:
The US response to urban poverty has shifted from a welfare-state model to market-based solutions – toward governance as arrangement of service partnerships among different federal and local agencies, contractors, philanthropies, community facilities, residents and businesses. Economic, political and fiscal pressures and shifting views of poverty, race, crime, health, and service have seen increased federal adoption of comprehensive community initiatives (CCIs). Originally devised by philanthropies, CCIs are cross-sectoral or cross-agency, multi-actor partnerships relying constitutively on social science-crafted, measurable evaluations of strategies and results; modern CCIs adopt an apolitical focus on best practices and forego explicit treatment of race, class or gender. One federal inter-agency program started in 1999, the Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) initiative of the Justice, Education and Health departments, targets school violence and youth health by requiring schools, health facilities, and local law and justice authorities to enter CCI-type coalitions as a condition of grant funding; these partnerships are expected to solicit community participation. This ethnographic case study of an SS/HS-funded CCI in the Rockaway peninsula of Queens, in which the author served as a program evaluator, finds mixed effects of federal requirements; obstacles in engaging community participation; and difficulties in leveraging one-time grant funding into sustainable structures. Roles of police, prosecutors, social workers, educators, mediators, evaluators and community groups are examined, illuminating divides of organizational mission and philosophy, profession, class, race, turf and residency. This gives rise to critiques of national trends in governance; community policing and justice; and evaluation politics. Two critical extremes are considered: Does implementation of community governance extend state authority by calling upon a community to condition itself, generating remote-control government, or do partnership models merely cover for abandonment of public ideals and obligations? Included are a sociology of Rockaway; a quantitative demographic survey of class and racial disparities and resident assessments of neighborhood issues; and findings of focus groups in which targeted Rockaway high school youths reflect on the meaning of safety and health in their lives and neighborhoods.
BREASTFEEDING POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES AND JAPAN: HOW CAN A GENDERED OR GENDER-BLIND POLICY SERVE AS A CONDUIT OR BARRIER TO EQUALITY?
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Barbara Katz Rothman
This dissertation is a cross-cultural analysis of breastfeeding experiences in the United States and Japan. I conceptualize women's breastfeeding practice as embodied cultural experiences and constituted by historical, medical, personal and social perspectives on their lactating and nursing bodies. Breastfeeding practice is differently experienced by women as mothers and women as workers. At the same time, differences in a country's public policies and social attitudes toward breastfeeding, in general, and breastfeeding workers in particular, shape the different experiences of breastfeeding mothers and workers. Accordingly, through an analysis of public policies, medical recommendations, and personal and social attitudes toward breastfeeding, I will offer proposals to mitigate problems breastfeeding mothers face in the public sphere in the United States and Japan. In comparing the gendered public policies that have emerged from the dominant cultural ideas of motherhood and "worker-hood" in the United States and Japan, I shed light on pitfalls that stem from an optimistically liberating view of the "mother friendly workplace" in Japan and the "gender-blind professionalized body" at work in the United States.
The Lives of Kong, Labor and Moviemaking in Three Acts
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Investigating the globalization process called runaway production—Hollywood film studios moving production to other countries and regions largely to avoid organized labor—is at the heart of The Lives of Kong: Labor and Moviemaking in Three Acts. It demonstrates that runaway production's devastating impact on the majority of unionized American film workers today emerges from an often bitterly contested history. Over three periods, from the 1920s – 1971, from 1972 – 1998, and from 1999 – the present, domestic and foreign film studio management, workers and their unions, artists and craftspeople, and state, federal and other nations' government officials struggled over this issue in significantly different ways. The re-historicizing of runaway production scholarship found in The Lives of Kong reclaims a much-needed scope for discussion of its causes, consequences, and remedies. This study also contributes to labor history scholarship by recovering aspects of the complex breadth of entertainment labor union history. The project further contributes to nascent studies of globalization's impact on the middle and creative classes. In addition, this dissertation demonstrates how links between film production processes and film content—a little-researched area—provide essential insight into conditions under which runaway production emerges. Using a multi-sited methodology appropriate to studying a globalization phenomenon, this project employs ethnographic methods, including oral history and participant-observation; analysis of 809 newspaper reports; and examination of production and content analysis. The iconic 1933 film King Kong, famous for its depiction of a giant gorilla, simultaneously dramatizes an overseas American film production that goes terribly wrong. Each ensuing version, first Dino De Laurentiis's (1976), and then Peter Jackson's (2005), joins with the original to provide a time-specific springboard for discussion of runaway production, including complicated portrayals of attitudes toward film work, film workers, and related explosive tensions involving race, gender and class. By re-connecting film process and product, while simultaneously re-historicizing the runaway production debate, The Lives of Kong shows the efficacy of interdisciplinary approaches to studying creative labor, leading to the potential for wide-ranging discussion about relationships between image and power, which have public policy implications on both the national and international levels.
Oh Canada, Your Home on Native Land: Settlement, Development and Conflict in Southern Ontario
Year of Dissertation:
On February 28, 2006, members of the Haudenosaunee Six Nations reserve in southern Ontario physically occupied and halted construction on a housing development bordering their reserve. The Haudenosaunee claimed that the site was part of a larger tract of land that they had never surrendered, and they vowed to remain on the land as long as necessary prevent the planned development from taking place. When police had still not removed the Haudenosaunee protesters almost two months later, some 2,000-3,000 local non-Native residents began voicing their frustration and anger in regular anti-protest rallies. On some occasions, these rallies escalated to the point of what one local politician called "intense, irrational anger" and even "near riots." This Sociological study examines some of the factors motivating both the 2006 protest, and the reactions to it by local non-Native residents and their federal, provincial and local government officials. Based on legal, archival and ethnographic research; media analysis; GIS mapping; and 45 interviews with residents of the town of Caledonia and the Six Nations reserve, as well as with local government officials, a few conclusions are reached. In examining the motivations for the 2006 protest, the results of the legal and archival research suggest that the Canadian government violated its own Supreme Court of Canada rulings, as well as its binding international legal commitments regarding the human rights of indigenous peoples. This research also suggests that these violations of the rights of indigenous peoples have long constituted the norm in Canadian society, producing a climate in which Native peoples are regularly dehumanized and dispossessed. In examining the various responses to the protest, the dissertation pays particular attention to the ways that non-Native residents and government officials constructed and acted upon various settler-colonial narratives when seeking to justify their responses to the protest. The dissertation argues that both these narratives and the legal violations can only be understood within a broader context of problematic patterns of thought and behavior that have long been inherent in -and even foundational to--Western society and the Western cultural worldview.
Existing But Not Living: Neo-Civil Death And The Carceral State
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ABSTRACT In 2010, the United States prison releases exceeded prison admission for the first time since the Bureau of Justice Statistics began collecting jurisdictional data in 1977. Prisoner reentry--the transition from prison to community--has grown exponentially in the 21st century. While individuals are coming home in larger quantities, many formerly incarcerated men and women lose social, political, and economic rights, otherwise known as civil death. The fundamental purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the impact of civil death on prisoner reentry. More specifically, how does the loss of civil rights construct notions of citizenship for recently released men and women? In addition, how do men and women navigate and negotiate the reentry process with both legal-related barriers imposed by the State as well as social obstacles created by incarceration? A community-based reentry program in Newark, New Jersey, is the field site of this research. Employing qualitative methods: interviews, focus groups, and ethnographic observations, this research explores the development of the prison industrial complex, which has led to mass incarceration and the growing prisoner reentry industry. The findings of this research give insight to the furthered underdevelopment of low-income communities via the carceral continuum.
Social Context and Perceived Belonging: A Comparative Study of Children of Immigrants in New York and Madrid
Jessica Sperling Smokoski
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This project examines the ways in which distinct contexts - and, specifically, distinct histories of immigration and ethnoracial diversity - affect the form, nature, and salience of boundaries demarcating an us/them (immigrant/non-immigrant) divide, including the perceived possibilities of social membership and the compatibility of minority and majority identity. It centers on the following research questions: What do the young adult 1.5/2nd generation see as the dominant boundaries or social divides in their countries of residence, in terms of differentiating immigrant-origin or ethnoracial minority groups from a perceived native-origin/mainstream population? How fluid are these boundaries, and when/why may they be subject to change? To what degree do children of immigrants feel receiving society national membership is available to them, and how does immigrant-origin or ethnoracial minority status play a role in in limiting (or, perhaps, permitting) membership? It examines these issues in a comparative perspective, focusing on young adult 1.5 and 2nd generation Dominicans and Colombians in New York City (a location with a historical immigrant presence) and Madrid (a location new to immigration). Methodologically, it utilizes 105 semi-structured in-depth interviews with individuals in these populations. By identifying the bases of, and barriers to, perceived possibilities of belonging in different social context, this project improves understanding of the current shape and possible future course of diversity in receiving societies.
Circuits of Desire: Science, Therapy, Trauma, Femininity
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In this dissertation, I utilize feminist poststructuralism, affect theory, psychoanalytic theory, and sociological critiques of medicalization and biopolitical/biocapitalist investment in bodies to analyze the diagnosis and lived experience of low sexual desire in women. In the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), two different low desire diagnoses are included: one for men (Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder), and one for women (Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder). This is a change from previous manuals, in which low-desiring men and women were both diagnosed with gender-neutral HSDD. I track the genealogy of gender differentiation in diagnostic patterns, examining historical configurations of diagnosably low desire from the early 20th century through to the present day. I also analyze how gender differences in sexual behavior and desire patterns are presented within other medical and popular discourses--focusing specifically on current configurations of masculinity and femininity within neuroscience, cognitive behavioral therapy, and evolutionary and experimental psychology--and I examine how these prolific discourses are used to support the gendering of the newest low desire diagnoses via an "alternative female sexual response model." I utilize content analysis and critical discourse analysis to examine the linguistic and discursive shifts, participant observation to examine how masculine and feminine desire are presented in a variety of medical and alternative therapeutic spaces, and in-depth interviews to assess the impact of these discourses on women who identify as low-desiring. Findings include that some low-desiring women feel that they have been socialized to experience their femininity as more receptive and responsive than masculine sexuality and that this is also associated with a broader set of gendered expectations in regard to sexual behavioral patterns; that many low-desiring women begin to incorporate embodied, affective, "invisible" labor in the form of sexual carework into their sexual and relational repertoires from a young age; and that some low-desiring women feel that they must carefully navigate and negotiate sex--specifically sex with men--in order to enjoy it and receive pleasure, and to feel consenting rather than coerced, in the face of a common and widespread experience of feminized trauma.
Post-1960 U.S. Anarchism and Social Theory
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Relatively recent political mobilizations--such as the demonstrations against the World Trade Organization in Seattle (1999), the attempted uprising in Greece (2008), and the Occupy movement (2011)--have shown that anti-capitalist anarchists can be influential in political movements far beyond their small numbers. Recently, some have argued that anarchism has the potential for useful contributions to social theory; however, it has failed to make these. This study, using both theoretical and historical lenses, looks at the development of U.S. anarchism to answer the question of why this has not happened. First, a general political and theoretical history of anarchism is provided, including a focus on the implications of the transition between classical (1840-1939) and contemporary (1960 to the present) anarchism. Then the theoretical bases of several contemporary anarchist theorists are analyzed. Murray Bookchin is looked at in the light of post-Trotskyist and Hegelian Marxist traditions. John Zerzan's indebtedness to a variety of intellectual strains, including various forms of heterodox marxism as well as the German interwar right, is analyzed. David Graeber's work is shown to illustrate ideal type anarchism. Lucien van der Walt and Michael Schmidt are seen as reviving syndicalist revisionism, and certain of the postanarchists are shown to deploy post-structuralist narratives that mask a rehashing of New Left anti-imperialism. This study concludes that in the contemporary period, anarchism has, instead of developing classical anarchist ideas, primarily borrowed its theoretical notions from non-anarchist intellectual traditions--sometimes by combining them with classical anarchism, but at other times merely acting under the general political framework set up by it. In conclusion, some suggestions are offered of how a theoretically rigorous and intellectually freestanding left-wing anarchist social theory could be developed.
Youth Civic Engagement: A Sociological Inquiry Into Programs and Participants in NYC
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America has low levels of civic, community and political participation, especially among youth. Moreover, poor and minority youth are particularly disaffected. This dissertation considers the emergence of the field of youth civic engagement programming that seeks to address that civic cynicism among teenagers in New York City. The data for this research comes from multiple sources, including: 7 interviews with youth civic engagement program coordinators/directors, 8 with youth policymakers, and 44 with teenagers; 5 focus groups with youth involved in youth civic engagement programs; survey data collected from 133 program youth; and a content analysis of 7 youth organizations' websites, publications, and tax statements. This mixed-methods approach was used to draw from the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of doing solely quantitative or qualitative research. The dissertation argues that youth civic engagement work has undergone organizational isomorphism that has contributed to it becoming its own homogenized field. As this has happened, there has been goal displacement whereby the organizations doing the work have become less focused on increasing and supporting civic dialogue among youth because more attention has to be paid to reporting to funders on non-related outcomes. By uncovering key advocacy strategies that have made some youth groups successful in influencing policy, the research hopes to push back on that goal displacement. It also shows how teenagers' involvement in delinquent behaviors does not mean they do not have a desire to actively make positive contributions to their communities, and their cynicism towards various institutions of social control does not mean they do not want to work with them to create positive change. The conclusions made speak to the concerns for the future sustainability of the field, as well as potential directions for it to move.
"If You See Something, Say Something: The Power of the 'War on Terrorism' to Name What We See"
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This dissertation seeks to understand the cultural politics of the "war on terrorism" through a case study of the "If You See Something, Say Something" campaign within the New York City Metropolitan Transit Authority Subway System. Drawing upon literature that focuses on an understanding of the affective transmission of culture, this research seeks to understand this particular campaign as a technique of social control. Through a content analysis of the advertisements of this campaign and a performative methodology that analyzes the performance of security within the subway system, an understanding of the connections this local campaign (as a security campaign) has with a greater "war on terrorism" is explored.